kumbh mela hinduismus

[86] In 2001, IKONOS satellite images confirmed a very large human gathering,[87][88] with officials estimating 70 million people over the festival,[88] including more than 40 million on the busiest single day according to BBC News. [53], The Kumbh Mela of Haridwar appears to be the original Kumbh Mela, since it is held according to the astrological sign "Kumbha" (Aquarius), and because there are several references to a 12-year cycle for it. [100] In the case of Prayag in particular, the festival site is predominantly submerged during the monsoon months. [58] These soldier-monk traditions have been a well-established feature of the Indian society, and they are prominent feature of the Kumbh melas. [25] Nasik has registered maximum visitors to 75 million. [78] In 1986, 50 people were killed in a stampede. [109], The festival site is strictly vegetarian[109] by tradition, as violence against animals is considered unacceptable. Kumbh Mela is the biggest Hinduism fair and a spiritual congregation held every 12 years in four Holy cities Prayag (Allahabad), Haridwar, Ujjain and Tryambakeshwar-Nashik in India. On 18 April 2010, a popular American morning show CBS News Sunday Morning extensively covered Haridwar's Kumbh Mela, calling it "The Largest Pilgrimage on Earth". Die Kumbh Mela in Ujjain wird Simhastha genannt. The largest religious gathering in the world, the Kumbh Mela brings Hindu holy men together to discuss their faith and disseminate information about their religion. Most pilgrims stay for a day or two, but some stay the entire month of Magh during the festival and live an austere life during the stay. [72] The British officials in co-operation with the native police also made attempts to improve the infrastructure, movement of pilgrims to avoid a stampede, detect sickness, and the sanitary conditions at the Melas. The 10-minute audio clip warned of a 2017 Las Vegas style attacks to be carried out by lone wolf attackers. [43], There are other references to Prayaga and river-side festivals in ancient Indian texts, including at the places where present-day Kumbh Melas are held, but the exact age of the Kumbh Mela is uncertain. It is believed that when the churning of the ocean of milk took place in Krutayug, the Kumbha Mela began. [53] The latter Akbar-era Persian text calls Prayag (spells it Priyag) the "king of shrines" for the Hindus, and mentions that it is considered particularly holy in the Hindu month of Magha. Europeans watched the crowds and few Christian missionaries distributed their religious literature at the Hardwar Mela, wrote Martin. [55] Like the priests at Prayag, those at Nashik and Ujjain, competing with other places for a sacred status, may have adopted the Kumbh tradition for their pre-existing Magha melas. The Kumbh Mela authorities said that the largest one-day attendance at the Kumbh Mela was 30 million on 10 February 2013,[24][25] and 50 million on 4 February 2019. [39], The earliest mention of Prayag and the bathing pilgrimage is found in Rigveda Pariśiṣṭa (supplement to the Rigveda). Segundo uma fábula, os deuses e os demônios lutavam pela "kumbh" (jarra, pote), onde se encontrava o "amrit" (néctar), criado pelo "sagar manthan" (o espumar dos oceanos). The first British reference to the Kumbh Mela in Prayag occurs only in an 1868 report, which mentions the need for increased pilgrimage and sanitation controls at the "Coomb fair" to be held in January 1870. [58] The records from the East India Company rule era report of violence between the akharas and numerous deaths. [74][75][76] The Timur accounts mention the mass bathing ritual along with shaving of head, the sacred river Ganges, charitable donations, the place was at the mountainous source of the river and that pilgrims believed a dip in the sacred river leads to their salvation. The darshan is important to the experience of the Kumbh Mela and because of this worshipers must be careful so as to not displease religious deities. It is hosted in four cities of India these are Haridwar, Prayag or Allahabad, Ujjain and Nashik. [1] It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahabad (Prayag) (Ganges-Yamuna Sarasvati rivers confluence), Haridwar (Ganges), Nashik (Godavari), and Ujjain (Shipra). The Maha Kumbh, which occurs every 12 Purna Kumbh Melas i.e. ˈku̇mməˌlä noun Usage: usually capitalized K&M Etymology: Hindi kumbh melā festival in the sign of the zodiac Aquarius, from Sanskrit kumbha pot, Aquarius + melā assembly more at hump, militate : a Hindu festival occurring once every 12 years in… [37][38] Nor is this story found in the later era Puranas (3rd to 10th-century CE). Two major groups that participate in the Kumbh Mela include the Sadhus (Hindu holy men) and pilgrims. Hindufest Kumbh Mela beginnt - YouTube In der indischen Stadt Nashik hat das Kumbh Mela Festival begonnen, das größte religiöse Fest des Hinduismus. Dieser besondere Krug enthielt den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. [108], Some pilgrims walk considerable distances and arrive barefoot, as a part of their religious tradition. The Simhastha Kumbha Mela will take place in Ujjain this year from April 22nd to May 21st, 2016, during Thousands of pilgrims in every form of transport as well as on foot marched to the pilgrimage site, dressed in colorful costumes, some without clothes, occasionally shouting "Mahadeo Bol" and "Bol, Bol" together. [28] The astrological etymology dates to late 1st-millennium CE, likely influenced by Greek zodiac ideas. In the years after 1857, the Prayagwals and the Kumbh Mela pilgrim crowds carried flags with images alluding to the rebellion and the racial persecution. [110], Darshan, or viewing, is an important part of the Kumbh Mela. Segundo uma fábula, os deuses e os demônios lutavam pela "kumbh" (jarra, pote), onde se encontrava o "amrit" (néctar), criado pelo "sagar manthan" (o escumar dos oceanos). One of the longest sections about Prayag rivers and its significance to Hindu pilgrimage is found in chapters 103–112 of the Matsya Purana. This event – called shahi snan or rajyogi snan – is marked by a celebratory processional march, with banners, flags, elephants, horses and musicians along with the naked or scantily clad monks,[note 5] some smeared with bhasma (ashes). The exact years – particularly for the Kumbh Melas at Ujjain and Nashik – have been a subject of dispute in the 20th-century. [77] The various Kumbh melas, in the 19th- and 20th-century witnessed sporadic stampedes, each tragedy leading to changes in how the flow of pilgrims to and from the river and ghats was managed. It's attended by millions of people each day. [66][102][104], The bathing ritual by the pilgrims may be aided by a Prayagwal priest or maybe a simple dip that is private. [53] Both these Mughal era texts use the term "Kumbh Mela" to describe only Haridwar's fair, mentioning a similar fair held in Prayag and Nashik. [29] In astrological texts, the term also refers to the zodiac sign of Aquarius. [6], Maha Kumbh at Prayagrajis the largest in the world, the attendance and scale of preparation of which keeps rising with each successive celebration. 30/30 Kumbh Mela, maior festival religioso do mundo que atrai milhões de devotos hindus ao Sangam, local de encontro dos rios sagrados Ganges, Yamuna e Saraswati onde segundo a crença, os devotos devem se banhar para alcançar a purificação dos pecados (Ahmad Masood/Reuters/VEJA) [49] In contrast, Ariel Glucklich – a scholar of Hinduism and Anthropology of Religion, the Xuanzang memoir includes, somewhat derisively, the reputation of Prayag as a place where people (Hindus) once committed superstitious devotional suicide to liberate their souls, and how a Brahmin of an earlier era successfully put an end to this practice. Reports of cholera led the officials to cancel the pilgrimage, but the pilgrims went on "passive resistance" and stated they preferred to die rather than obey the official orders. The festival management workers have only two and a half months to start and complete the construction of all temporarily infrastructure necessary for the pilgrims, making the task even more challenging. According to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi – the historian and biographer of the Turco-Mongol raider and conqueror Timur, his armies plundered Haridwar and massacred the gathered pilgrims. [40] It is also mentioned in the Pali canons of Buddhism, such as in section 1.7 of Majjhima Nikaya, wherein the Buddha states that bathing in Payaga (Skt: Prayaga) cannot wash away cruel and evil deeds, rather the virtuous one should be pure in heart and fair in action. For example, the colonial era Imperial Gazetteer of India reported that between 2 and 2.5 million pilgrims attended the Kumbh mela in 1796 and 1808, then added these numbers may be exaggerations. [89] Another estimate states that about 30 million attended the 2001 Kumbh mela on the busiest mauni amavasya day alone. Esta página foi editada pela última vez às 09h51min de 20 de setembro de 2019. [105] These ritual practices are punctuated by celebratory feasts where vast number of people sit in rows and share a community meal – mahaprasada – prepared by volunteers from charitable donations. [98], The Kumbh mela attracts tens of millions of pilgrims. The dispute started over the bathing order, which then indicated status of the akharas. D. P. Dubey states that none of the ancient Hindu texts call the Prayag fair as a "Kumbh Mela". Town Survey Report: Haryana, Thanesar, District Kurukshetra, Fairs and Festivals of India: Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, "Over 3 crore take holy dip in Sangam on Mauni Amavasya", "Over three crore devotees take the dip at Sangam", "Eyes in the sky. [28] The word Kumbha or its derivatives are found in the Rigveda (1500–1200 BCE), for example, in verse 10.89.7; verse 19.16 of the Yajurveda, verse 6.3 of Samaveda, verse 19.53.3 of the Atharvaveda, and other Vedic and post-Vedic ancient Sanskrit literature. [56], The Magh Mela of Prayag is probably the oldest among the four modern day Kumbh Melas. Many pilgrims practice partial (one meal a day) or full vrata (day-long fasting), some abstain from elaborate meals. [83], The historical and modern estimates of attendance vary greatly between sources. The 7th-century Buddhist Chinese traveller Xuanzang (Hiuen Tsang) mentions king Harsha and his capital of Prayag, which he states to be a sacred Hindu city with hundreds of "deva temples" and two Buddhist institutions. The Gods and demons came together to acquire the pot of Amrut (Divine nectar) and decided to churn the ocean of milk. [44], Other early accounts of the significance of Prayag to Hinduism is found in the various versions of the Prayaga Mahatmya, dated to the late 1st-millennium CE. [84], During World War II, the colonial government banned the Kumbh Mela to conserve scarce supplies of fuel. [81] Prayagwals objected to and campaigned against the colonial government supported Christian missionaries and officials who treated them and the pilgrims as "ignorant co-religionists" and who aggressively tried to convert the Hindu pilgrims to a Christian sect. [10], Kumbh Mela at Prayagrajis celebrated approximately 3 years after Kumbh at Haridwar and 3 years before Kumbh at Nashik and Ujjain (both of which are celebrated in the same year or one year apart). Este texto é disponibilizado nos termos da licença. The ruthlessly slaughtered pilgrims were likely those attending the Kumbh mela of 1399. Kumbh Mela (IFA: ˌkʊm ˈmeɪlə) is in Hindoeïsme ’n massabedevaart waarin Hindoes saamkom om in ’n heilige rivier te bad. [2][37], While the Kumbha Mela phrase is not found in the ancient or medieval era texts, numerous chapters and verses in Hindu texts are found about a bathing festival, the sacred junction of rivers Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati at Prayag, and pilgrimage to Prayag. after every 144 years. [13][14] Other places where the Magha-Mela or Makar-Mela bathing pilgrimage and fairs have been called Kumbh Mela include Kurukshetra,[15][16] Sonipat,[17] and Panauti (Nepal). He goes to a saint, who advises him to go on a pilgrimage to Prayag and bathe in river Ganges as a means of penance. Danach kämpften in Indien einst Götter und Dämonen verbissen um einen „Kumbh“. Kumbh Mela [kʊm'meɪlα:] noun a Hindu festival, held once every twelve years, at which pilgrims bathe in the Ganges and Jumna Rivers. The British media reported these pilgrim assemblies and protests at the later Kumbh Mela as strangely "hostile" and with "disbelief", states Maclean. Religion Hinduismus (GERMANY OUT) Maha Kumbh Mela (Fest) in Hardwar,Indien:Hinduistische Naga Sadhus auf dem Wegzum Ganges (zum Bad im heiligen Fluß)- 14.04.1998 (COL) (Photo by Khemka/ullstein bild via Getty Images) [66][102] These monastic institutions come from different parts of India, have a particular emblem symbol and deity (Ganesha, Dattatreya, Hanuman, etc.). According to Maclean, the Prayagwal Brahmin priests of Prayag coopted the Kumbh legend and brand to the annual Prayag Magh Mela given the socio-political circumstances in the 19th-century. [81], The Kumbh Mela continued to play an important role in the independence movement through 1947, as a place where the native people and politicians periodically gathered in large numbers. [53] The late 16th-century Tabaqat-i-Akbari also records of an annual bathing festival at Prayag sangam where "various classes of Hindus came from all sides of the country to bathe, in such numbers, that the jungles and plains [around it] were unable to hold them". Origin. The Kumbh Mela has been successfully adapted to Allahabad and has arguably become the greatest mela in modern India, even eclipsing its Hardwar namesake. [115], In 2007, the National Geographic filmed and broadcast a documentary of the Prayag Kumbh Mela, named Inside Nirvana, under the direction of Karina Holden with the scholar Kama Maclean as a consultant. Jayant, filho de [52], According to James Mallinson – a scholar of Hindu yoga manuscripts and monastic institutions, bathing festivals at Prayag with large gatherings of pilgrims are attested since "at least the middle of the first millennium CE", while textual evidence exists for similar pilgrimage at other major sacred rivers since the medieval period. The government deployed police to gain this intelligence at the grassroots level of Kumbh Mela. About 110 million people,… Indian authorities had to manage 250 million festivalgoers. For the 2019 Ardh Kumbh at Prayagraj, the preparations include a ₹42,000 million (US$590 million or €540 million) temporary city over 2,500 hectares with 122,000 temporary toilets and range of accommodation from simple dormitory tents to 5-star tents, 800 special trains by the Indian Railway, artificially intelligent video surveillance and analytics by IBM, disease surveillance, river transport management by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and an app to help the visitors. The festival had roadside merchants of food grains, confectioners, clothes, toys and other items. In this film, two characters search for the tenth avatar and the final avtar of Lord Vishnu – Kalki, in the lines of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. The terrorists had threatened to poison the water of river Ganga. Therefore, approximately once a century, the Kumbh mela returns to a site after 11 years. The camping (santhas/akharas), food, water, sanitation, emergency health care, fire services, policing, disaster management preparations, the movement of people require significant prior planning. While there are some religious and enchanted elements at work that emphasize Prayag's sanctity, other forces have promoted the Hardwar Kumbh Mela in Allahabad. Weitere Ideen zu buddhismus, spirituell, joga. However, states Lochtefeld, these historical texts "clearly reveal large, well-established bathing festivals" that were either annual or based on the twelve-year cycle of planet Jupiter. Algumas gotas do néctar caíram em quatro cidades na Índia: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nasik e Haridwar, onde o Khumba Mela acontece sucessivamente a cada três anos. Historically the Kumbh Melas were also major commercial events, initiation of new recruits to the akharas, prayers and community singing, spiritual discussions, education and a spectacle. Approximately once a century, the Kumbh mela returns after 11 years. Harvard University, South Asia Institute (2015). [62] At the 1796 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar, violence broke out between the Shaivites and the Udasis on logistics and camping rights. [5] In Tirthayatra Parva, before the great war, the epic states "the one who observes firm [ethical] vows, having bathed at Prayaga during Magha, O best of the Bharatas, becomes spotless and reaches heaven. According to Kama MacLean, the socio-political developments during the colonial era and a reaction to the Orientalism led to the rebranding and remobilisation of the ancient Magha Mela as the modern era Kumbh Mela, particularly after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. [28] It is found in the Vedic texts, in this sense, often in the context of holding water or in mythical legends about the nectar of immortality. [20] Additionally, the priests sought the British administration to recognise the festival and protect their religious rights. [45][46][47], Kama MacLean – an Indologist who has published articles on the Kumbh Mela predominantly based on the colonial archives and English-language media,[48] states based on emails from other scholars and a more recent interpretation of the 7th-century Xuanzang memoir, the Prayag event happened every 5 years (and not 12 years), featured a Buddha statue, involved alms giving and it might have been a Buddhist festival. Kama Maclean states that the early British records do not mention the name "Kumbh Mela" or the 12-year cycle for the Prayag fair. Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ ˌ k ʊ m b ˈ m eɪ l ə /) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. This is because of Jupiter's orbit of 11.86 years. Jayant, filho de Indra, escapou com a kumbh e por 12 dias consecutivos os demônios lutaram contra os deuses pela posse da jarra. They are able to "seek instruction or advice in their spiritual lives." Millions of Hindus are attending the Kumbh Mela festival in India - the biggest gathering of people in the world. [30][31][32], The word mela means "unite, join, meet, move together, assembly, junction" in Sanskrit, particularly in the context of fairs, community celebration. After 1947, the state governments have taken over this role and provide the infrastructure for the Kumbh mela in their respective states. Sadhguru explains the science and significance of one of the world’s largest spiritual gathering. [68][69] The Prayagwal pandas initially went along, according to colonial records, but later resisted as the impact of the religious tax on the pilgrims became clear. Several Hindu rajas, Sikh rulers and Muslim Nawabs visited the fair. [21] According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 60 million Hindus gathered for the Kumbh Mela in 2001. [3][4] During the colonial era rule of the East India Company, its officials saw the Hindu pilgrimage as a means to collect vast sums of revenue through a "pilgrim tax" and taxes on the trade that occurred during the festival. The gods and demons fight over this pot, the "kumbh," of nectar in order to gain immortality. There is ample evidence in historic manuscripts[which? will you go there ? [67], The Kumbh melas of the past, albeit with different regional names, attracted large attendance and have been religiously significant to the Hindus for centuries. This word too is found in the Rigveda and other ancient Hindu texts. Large tracts of Kumbh mela lands near the Ganga-Yamuna confluence were confiscated and annexed into the government cantonment. Sie erzählt von einem Kampf der Götter um den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. Até hoje, a cada 12 anos, cada uma dessas cidades é sede da mela. Once these monks have taken the dip, the festival day opens for bathing by the pilgrims from far and near the site. These are in the form of Snana (bathe) ritual and in the form of Prayag Mahatmya (greatness of Prayag, historical tour guides in Sanskrit). [85] After India's independence, the attendance rose sharply. [106] The pilgrimage is also recommended in Hindu texts to those who have made mistakes or sinned, repent their errors and as a means of prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for these mistakes. On 30 September 2010, the Kumbh Mela featured in the second episode of the Sky One TV series "An Idiot Abroad" with Karl Pilkington visiting the festival. According to Dubey, as well as Macclean, the Islamic encyclopaedia Yadgar-i-Bahaduri written in 1834 Lucknow, described the Prayag festival and its sanctity to the Hindus. [34][35], This Hindu legend describes the creation of a "pot of amrita (nectar of immortality)" after the forces of good and evil churn the ocean of creation. The first two of these loca tions are in Uttar Pradesh, Ujjaini is in… People make the pilgrimage to the Kumbh Mela specifically to observe and experience both the religious and secular aspects of the event. [61], During the 17th-century, the akharas competed for ritual primacy, priority rights to who bathes first or at the most auspicious time, and prominence leading to violent conflicts. [105] More elaborate ceremonies include a yajna (homa) led by a priest. [citation needed], Ashish Avikunthak’s Bengali-language feature length fiction film Kalkimanthakatha (2015), was shot in the PrayagrajKumbh Mela in 2013. Finalmente, venceram os deuses, beberam o "amrit" e alcançaram a imortalidade. Along with priests, soldiers, and religious mendicants, the fair had horse traders from Bukhara, Kabul, Turkistan as well as Arabs and Persians. [92] According to Kama Maclean, the coordinators and attendees themselves state that a part of the glory of the Kumbh festival is in that "feeling of brotherhood and love" where millions peacefully gather on the river banks in harmony and a sense of shared heritage. For example, in Tamil Nadu, the Magha Mela with water-dip ritual is a festival of antiquity. [105], The motivations for the bathing ritual are several. [28][33] Thus, Kumbh Mela means an "assembly, meet, union" around "water or nectar of immortality". Since Jupiter's orbit completes in 11.86 years, a calendar year adjustment appears in approximately 8 cycles. Providing for a safe and pleasant temporary stay at the festival site is a complex and challenging task. On 28 April 2010, BBC reported an audio and a video report on Kumbh Mela, titled "Kumbh Mela 'greatest show on earth. Em 2007 ocorreu em Prayagraj o Ardh Kumbh Mela, o encerro de um ciclo de 12 festivais em 144 anos de evento, sendo a maior concentração humana jamais vista, atraindo mais de 70 milhões de pessoas - densidade demográfica de mais de 500 mil habitantes/km²[1] [66][103] The largest contingent is the Juna akhara, traced to Adi Shankara, representing a diverse mix from the four of the largest Hindu monasteries in India with their headquarters at Sringeri, Dvarka, Jyotirmatha and Govardhana. [6] The festival grounds also feature a wide range of cultural spectacles over the month of celebrations. 12.04.2016 - gatering of th holy people. [39][50] These Sanskrit guide books of the medieval era India were updated over its editions, likely by priests and guides who had a mutual stake in the economic returns from the visiting pilgrims. The most significant is the belief that the tirtha (pilgrimage) to the Kumbh Mela sites and then bathing in these holy rivers has a salvific value, moksha – a means to liberation from the cycle of rebirths (samsara). Traditionally, on amavasya – the most cherished day for bathing – the Hindu pilgrims welcome and wait for the thirteen sadhu akharas to bathe first. O festival Kumbh Mela foi classificado pela UNESCO em 2017 como Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade. Census of India, 1971: Haryana, Volume 6, Part 2, Page 137. Kumbh Mela (Hindi कुंभ मेला kumbh melā, m., von Kumbh ‚Krug‘ und Mela ‚Fest‘, also „Fest des Kruges“) gilt als das größte religiöse Fest des Hinduismus und der Welt. ‘Unity of Hindus’ is the main objective of the Kumbh Mela. The ban, coupled with false rumours that Japan planned to bomb and commit genocide at the Kumbh mela site, led to sharply lower attendance at the 1942 Kumbh mela than prior decades when an estimated 2 to 4 million pilgrims gathered at each Kumbh mela. Left: Anna Dāna event at Prayag Kumbh, feeding monks and poor; Right: A dance performance. A Maha Kumbh Mela de 2001, em Prayagraj, foi um dos maiores e mais espetaculares festivais jamais ocorridos. Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela (/ˌkʊmb ˈmeɪlə/) is a major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism. [58] By the 18th-century, many of these had organised into one of thirteen akharas (warrior ascetic bands, monastic militia), of which ten were related to Hinduism and three related to Sikhism. Evolution of earlier melas to Kumbh Melas, Akharas: Warrior monks, recruitment drive and logistics, 1857 rebellion and the Independence movement. Kumbh Mela and The Sadhus,(English, Paperback, Badri Narain and Kedar Narain) Pilgrims Publishings, India. [52] Manuscripts related to Hindu ascetics and warrior-monks – akharas fighting the Islamic Sultanates and Mughal Empire era – mention bathing pilgrimage and a large periodic assembly of Hindus at religious festivals associated with bathing, gift-giving, commerce and organisation. Read in Hindi: महाकुम्भ मेला: क्या है इसका विज्ञान? [26][27], The Kumbha in Kumbha Mela literally means "pitcher, jar, pot" in Sanskrit. It dates from the early centuries CE, given it has been mentioned in several early Puranas. Kumbh Mela has been theme for many documentaries, including Kings with Straw Mats (1998) directed by Ira Cohen, Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth (2001) directed by Graham Day,[111] Short Cut to Nirvana: Kumbh Mela (2004) directed by Nick Day and produced by "Maurizio Benazzo",[112] Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River (2004) by Nadeem Uddin,[113] Invocation, Kumbh Mela (2008), Kumbh Mela 2013: Living with Mahatiagi (2013) by the Ukrainian Religious Studies Project Ahamot,[114] and Kumbh Mela: Walking with the Nagas (2011), Amrit: Nectar of Immortality (2012) directed by Jonas Scheu and Philipp Eyer. These include kalagram (venues of kala, Indian arts), laser light shows, classical dance and musical performances from different parts of India, thematic gates reflecting the historic regional architectural diversity, boat rides, tourist walks to historic sites near the river, as well opportunities to visit the monastic camps to watch yoga adepts and spiritual discourses. He also includes a 1814 letter from his missionary friend who distributed copies of the Gospel to the pilgrims and tried to convert some to Christianity. [6], The festival is traditionally credited to the 8th-century Hindu philosopher and saint Adi Shankara, as a part of his efforts to start major Hindu gatherings for philosophical discussions and debates along with Hindu monasteries across the Indian subcontinent. [18], The Kumbh Melas have three dates around which the significant majority of pilgrims participate, while the festival itself lasts between one[19] to three months around these dates. [116] Amrita Kumbher Sandhane, a 1982 Bengali feature film directed by Dilip Roy, also documents the Kumbh Mela. [23] The festival is observed over many days, with the day of Amavasya attracting the largest number on a single day. [20] They intervened, laid out the camps, trading spaces, and established a bathing order for each akhara. [7] However, there is no historic literary evidence of these mass pilgrimages called "Kumbha Mela" prior to the 19th-century. ][8] and inscriptions[which? [5][107] Pilgrimage and bathing in holy rivers with a motivation to do penance and as a means to self-purify has Vedic precedents and is discussed in the early dharma literature of Hinduism. [72][73], The Kumbh Melas have been sites of tragedies. Die Kumbh Mela gilt als das größte religiöse Fest des Hinduismus und der Welt. [109] In 2013, the National Geographic Channel returned and filmed the Inside the Mahakumbh. [85], In 2007, 70 million pilgrims attended the 45-day long Ardha Kumbh Mela at Prayagraj, estimates the local administration. [105] After these river-side rituals, the pilgrim then takes a dip in the water, stands up, prays for a short while, then exits the river waters. The Kumbh Mela in India is as mesmerizing as it is spiritual. [2], The Kumbh Mela at Ujjain began in the 18th century, when the Maratha ruler Ranoji Shinde invited ascetics from Nashik to Ujjain for a local festival. www.simhasthujjain.in The Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred river. Darshan focuses on the visual exchange, where there is interaction with a religious deity and the worshiper is able to visually "'drink' divine power." Cerca de 30 milhões de pessoas se reuniram na cidade sagrada para se banharem nas águas sagradas do Ganges. This festival is held at the Mahamaham tank (near Kaveri river) every 12 years at Kumbakonam, attracts millions of South Indian Hindus and has been described as the Tamil Kumbh Mela. The Kumbh Mela, or Pitcher Festival, traces its origins back to Hindu mythology and a battle between gods and demons over a pitcher containing amrita, the nectar of immortality. [34] Scholars, in contrast, question these claims as none of the ancient or medieval era texts that mention the Samudra Manthan legend ever link it to a "mela" or festival. Kumbh Mela or Kumbha Mela is a mass Hindupilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred or holy river. Once the British had regained control of the region, the Prayagwals were persecuted by the colonial officials, some convicted and hanged, while others for whom the government did not have proof enough to convict were persecuted. O Khumba Mela ou Kumbh Mela (de khumb, "pote" e mela, "festival") é o principal festival do hinduísmo, que ocorre quatro vezes a cada doze anos na Índia, rodando por quatro cidades: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nashik e Haridwar.

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